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Research Update

Welcome to our monthly Research Update, available exclusively to IACLE and BCLA members to support your teaching and practice.

Issue 34 – October 2019

In this issue, we cover two different aspects of myopia control. A review paper discusses possible mechanisms linking higher order aberrations with refractive error development and the treatment effect of myopia interventions. Another attempts to answer the burning question: which low-dose atropine should be recommended for myopia control?

A Korean group looks at the association of psychological stress and dry eye symptoms in medical students. An Australian team investigates the effect of uncorrected astigmatism on night driving performance on a closed-road circuit. We include a study that assesses the effects of various silicone hydrogel lenses on ocular surface and comfort. A team from the UK retrospectively analyzes cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis reported in a university hospital. And finally, we report on a study that examines the effects of smart phone use on the ocular surface.

Happy reading!

The IACLE Education Team

JOURNALS
Journals reviewed in this issue:
 
Clinical and Experimental Optometry Early view
Eye & Contact Lens 45:5  
Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 39:5
Contact Lens & Anterior Eye 42:5
Current Eye Research Latest articles
 
MYOPIA

Higher order aberrations and myopia control

Hughes et al summarize the literature on higher order aberrations (HOAs) in animal models of refractive error development, and changes in HOA profile in humans with age, refractive error, abnormal visual development and myopia control interventions. Animal studies suggest changes in HOA profile may be a consequence of experimentally induced refractive error. Longitudinal studies examining changes in HOAs during infancy, childhood and adolescence – and their association with refractive error and ocular structural development – are required, and also before and after myopia control interventions.

Clin Exp Optom 2019. DOI:10.1111/cxo.12960. Read the abstract

Which low-dose atropine for myopia control?

Khanal & Phillips share their views on low-dose atropine for myopia control based on current evidence. Use of 0.01% atropine slows refractive changes associated with myopia progression without slowing abnormal eye enlargement. The efficacy of 0.05% atropine appears to be equivalent to that of orthokeratology lens wear. Both 0.025% and 0.05% concentrations have greater efficacy than progressive addition lenses. A shift in clinical practice away from prescribing 0.01% atropine towards 0.025% to 0.05% atropine is needed to reduce the risks of myopia-related ocular pathologies, the authors say.

Clin Exp Optom 2019. DOI:10.1111/cxo.12967. Read the full text

DRY EYE

Psychological stress in medical students and dry eye

In this cross-sectional study, Hyon et al evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among medical students. Trained interviewers conducted a survey among 209 medical students that included demographic data, dry eye symptoms, potential risk factors for DED, personal habits, and psychological stress. The study revealed a high prevalence of symptomatic DED in medical students (27%). Psychological stress had significant correlation with a risk of DED. Female sex, prolonged computer use, and contact lens wear were also associated with an increased risk of DED.

Eye & Contact Lens 2019;45:5 310-314. Read the abstract

ASTIGMATISM

Toric contact lenses and night driving performance

To test the hypothesis correcting low-to-moderate astigmatism with toric contact lenses would improve night driving performance compared with spherical contact lenses, Black et al recruited 10 astigmats to this double-masked, randomised, cross-over study. Binocular vision functions and night driving performance were assessed with toric and best-sphere lenses. Correction with toric lenses improved mesopic visual acuity, photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity and mesopic motion sensitivity, and reduced glare, resulting in significant improvements in night driving performance compared to spherical lenses.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2019;39:5 350-357. Read the abstract

MATERIALS

Effects of silicone hydrogels on ocular surface

To assess the interaction of four monthly silicone hydrogel contact lenses with the ocular surface and comfort over 15 days, García-Montero et al recruited 15 existing lens wearers to this prospective, cross-over, randomized and double-masked study. Assessment was by classical clinical tests, non-invasive ocular imaging and ocular surface temperature measurements. Subjective comfort was also assessed. The Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) was applied to quantify discomfort. Silicone hydrogels maintained the integrity of the ocular surface both during and after lens wear.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42:5 475-481. Read the full text 

INFECTIONS

Acanthamoeba keratitis in a UK hospital setting

Hassan et al retrospectively analyzed nine cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) identified in a UK university hospital to determine incidence rates, risk factors and final vision outcomes. Three patients used daily disposable lenses and six used monthly disposables. Eight out of nine patients had an improvement in best corrected visual acuity which was consistent with their baseline level pre-infection. The study showed excellent outcomes that can be attributed to early diagnosis, a robust treatment protocol and diagnostic modalities.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42:5 506-511. Read the full text 

DIGITAL DEVICES

Effects of smartphone use on ocular surface

Golebiowski et al examined the effects of smartphone use on ocular symptoms, tear function, blinking, binocular vision and working distance. Twelve young adults read a novel on a specified smartphone for 60 min. Eyestrain and ocular surface symptoms increased, incomplete blinking increased, binocular accommodative facility decreased and working distance remained at 30-34 cm after smartphone use. Extended use of smartphones appears to have important implications for ocular surface health and binocular function.

Curr Eye Res 2019. DOI:10.1080/02713683.2019.1663542. Read the abstract

© International Association of Contact Lens Educators 2019

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